Shop Mobile More Submit  Join Login


Submitted on
September 8, 2011
Image Size
919 KB


17,245 (2 today)
1,626 (who?)
The Andromeda Galaxy - M31 by octane2 The Andromeda Galaxy - M31 by octane2
The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) in Andromeda

Click here to view it on a black background to appreciate shadow and highlight detail

When I was a kid, I remember reading in the newspaper that the Andromeda Galaxy would be visible in the north-eastern sky at a particular time of the night. My father had bought me a pair of Hanimex 7x50 binoculars as a birthday gift and I recall waking up and trying in vain to see this majestic object which was touted as being the most distant visible object to the unaided human eye.

I had no idea what a planisphere was, or what the constellations looked like. I remember reading that I had to look for the Great Square of Pegasus and navigate my way to the galaxy. Alas, I never found it on that night, or on subsequent nights.

Anyhow, that's how my love of astronomy was born.

20-something years later, I have been fortunate enough to photograph this most beautiful of celestial treasure-troves.

I couldn't wait to process this (as will be noted by not adding my normal frame and signature to the image). This was a very rough processing job. I will add some hydrogen alpha to this and re-visit it.

6.5 hours LRGB: 210 60 60 60.

I must say, though, that I am completely in love with PixInsight. What a remarkable piece of software!

M31 is one of the grandest and majestic objects in the night sky, and, easily the most famous galaxy outside of our own Milky Way.

It's easily visible in the northern hemisphere as a hazy patch to the unaided eye about the width of 5 full moons side by side. Those of us in the southern hemisphere must travel to dark sites to truly appreciate this gem.

A couple of years ago at the Albury-Wodonga Border Stargaze star party, I had the utmost pleasure of viewing this galaxy through a binoviewer (binoculars made out of telescopes). I sat in that chair for at least ten minutes with the binoculars glued to my face just marvelling at the grandeur of this galaxy. I could clearly see the brightening towards the nucleus.

I'm also certain that I could resolve M32 and M110, Andromeda's companion galaxies, which you can also see in my image. M32 is the bright spot in the galaxy, and, M101 is below it. Carefully viewing the central nucleus through a telescope reveals dust lanes.

The Hubble Space Telescope's images have shown that M31 has a double nucleus, which leads to the idea that this galaxy may have cannibalised another galaxy at some stage of its evolution.

For many years, astronomers thought that the Andromeda Galaxy was a nebula inside our own galaxy. It wasn't until 1923 when the astronomer, Edwin Hubble, showed that it actually lay outside our host galaxy.

M31 is now thought to be about 2.9 million light years away, and is over 150,000 light years across, with a mass 1.2 trillion times that of our own Sun.

When viewing this image, bear in mind that the light that you're seeing shining from this galaxy, travelled nearly 3 million years for my camera to record it.

I hope you enjoy this image as much as I enjoyed processing it.

Target: The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) in Andromeda
Date(s): August, and September 2011
Detector: SBIG STL-11000M
Telescope: Takahashi FSQ-106N
Focal length: 530mm
Guiding: Self guiding through SBIG STL-11000M
Exposure: LRGB (210 60 60 60); total: 6.5 hours
Exposure: L bin 1x1, RGB bin 2x2
Software: PinPoint LE: astrometric plate solving; MaxIm DL 5: Calibration, astrometric registration, frame registration, normalisation, and sigma clip stacking; PixInsight: composite registration, dynamic background extraction and background equalisation, colour calibration, non-linear histogram stretching, colour combination, morphological transformation, noise reduction; Adobe Photoshop CS5: post-processing and framing


Edit: stoked at my fourth Daily Deviation. Thank you so much :iconisacgoulart: (^IsacGoulart) for featuring me.
Add a Comment:

Daily Deviation

Given 2012-11-08
my only critique, and its quite anal and small, is that to the left you can just start to see a few large stars (or small galaxies). would be good to widen the picture a few more millimetres just so all significant objects in the picture are present. but as i said thats just being very anal, i cant see anything else wrong.

will be interesting to see what the hydrogen filter will do.
actually apparently i didnt hit the minimum word count above so i must try to find something else to critique :s

maybe try and sharpen up the smaller galaxy to the right or adjust the colours a little so we can see some detail in it.
What do you think?
The Artist thought this was FAIR
33 out of 46 deviants thought this was fair.

The Artist has requested Critique on this Artwork

Please sign up or login to post a critique.

Elysium6 Featured By Owner 4 days ago  Hobbyist Photographer
Doodah Featured By Owner Oct 19, 2014
congratulation :worship:
alellencioniscola Featured By Owner Jan 9, 2014  Hobbyist
it's great
alomhordozo57 Featured By Owner Sep 22, 2013
IWantSleep Featured By Owner Aug 10, 2013
Wow, absolutely incredible.
Stallker2003 Featured By Owner Jun 11, 2013
Hi ! Realy loved your picture. I am searchig for free texture for making a sky box. I would really be happy if you will agree that ill use your photo. Thanks. If u have bigger size . Ill be happy ).
GalaxySeerNumber9 Featured By Owner May 26, 2013  Professional General Artist
:XD: lol
ericktuck Featured By Owner May 25, 2013  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Well jeesh, just hold a gun to my head for the intel, why don't
GalaxySeerNumber9 Featured By Owner May 25, 2013  Professional General Artist
Oh no its fine~! :D
ericktuck Featured By Owner May 25, 2013  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Would help if you knew more internal intel. of the planets within this galaxy, I am guessing... One I am very familiar with, but that is sensitive information, that I am not about to give out... Beside's, anyone like me, would be viewed as being "mad" or insane for any mention of such experiences... So I guess it better left alone... Good day, sir, and sorry for interruption of your activities...
Add a Comment: